Mumbai is a city of contrasts with a perfect blend of the old and the new. The city has a rich cultural heritage which reflects the glorious past and the dynamic present of Mumbai. Mumbaikars tend to get busy in their demanding schedules of life, but when it comes to religion, people appear to be highly devout. Religion plays an important role in the lives of people in Mumbai. Being a city of diversity, religion and lifestyle is a free liberal spirit in Mumbai. A multi cultural and multi ethnic society exists in Mumbai. The people of Mumbai live in complete harmony with each other. Like any other part of India, Hinduism is the major religion observed by most of the residents of Bombay. Apart from Hinduism, the other religions followed here are Islam, Jainism, Zoroastrianism and Christianity. Since it is a metropolitan city, Mumbai is advanced and so the people here are flexible and there is no religious discord amongst them. The laudable part is that however people follow different religions; they live happily and celebrate each and every religious festival with full enthusiasm. Mumbai has a considerable population of Parsis, who were the first ones to settle here after Koli fisher folks.The people of Mumbai are generally very busy in keeping pace with their hectic schedule yet when it comes to religion; they appear to be very highly devout. Religion definitely plays a very important role in the lives of the people of Mumbai.Temples, churches as well as mosques, make the major places of worship in the city. In precise terms, Mumbai has people following different religions, yet they live in complete harmony with one another.Apart from Hinduism, the other religions which are followed by the people of Mumbai are Islam, Christianity, Jainism and Zoroastrianism.Mumbai is a city of many contrasts; a blend of old and new, of growing wealth and flagrant poverty. The city has a rich cultural heritage which reflects its glorious past and dynamic present. Embedded in the diversity of its people, in music, art, dance, religion and lifestyle is a free liberal spirit that is so Mumbai.The laudable part is that the people here follow different religions yet they live happily in communion and celebrate all the festivals with the same zeal and enthusiasm. . Mumbai also has a considerable population of the Parsis who are considered to be the first ones to settle in Mumbai after the Koli fisher folks. The major place of worship in the city includes Temples, Churches and Mosques. There are quite a few temples in the city and surrounding towns. please remove your shoes/slippers before entering any temple. also, ask the local priest or guide if one is allowed to take photographs before taking them. Don’t encourage the beggars around the city. If you pay one of them, a hundred will surround you. The Parsis have their special fire Temples. This means that Mumbai residents celebrate Indian as well as Western festivals with great fanfare.Greeting people with Namaste (hindi), vanakkam (tamil), namashkaar (marathi) – hello.So, Indian Memoirz invites you to enjoy the various festivals and occasions that are enjoyed by the people of Mumbai in complete harmony.
Mumbaikar or Bombayite is the term used for the inhabitants of Mumbai. Similar to the people in other parts of India, The people of Mumbai live a very fast life. The Mumbai people are often addressed as “Mubiakars”. The Mumbai people are very hard working and travel long distances to reach their work station. Mumbaikars are lively people, who live life to its fullest. Mumbai has a transfusion of various communities, following different religions and customs. Most of the people in Mumbai avail local train for traveling as it is the cheapest as well as the fastest mode of transport in the metropolis. Each and every item in available in Mumbai carries a high price tag. In Mumbai, you really have to work hard to make your both ends meet.It is an excellent example of synchronization between people, who have come from diverse regions. As the Island city has a profusion of work, people have migrated here for finding jobs or setting up business.As the cost of living is very high, the Mumbai people often take up part time jobs to earn more. Start the tour with the Kolis, the fisher folk who were the original inhabitants of Mumbai, and who gave the city its name. Being a metropolitan city, Mumbai is both technologically and industrially advanced. Despite the fact that people have adapted themselves to the contemporary lifestyle, accustomed with gizmos and gadgets, they are deeply enrooted in the traditional values and principles. The people are God-fearing and respect their religion, but it doesn’t mean they are orthodox. If they enjoy going to their places of worship, they equally enjoy going to pubs & discos. You can also see St. Thomas Cathedral, one of the oldest Anglican Churches in Mumbai, with an active Christian community that is very much a part of the city.Panipuri wallahs, bhelpuri wallahs are very common features in the streets of Mumbai. Paw bhajis and Sewa puris, Batatyschi thecha bhaji are the favorite spicy foods of the Mumbiakars. The traditional cuisines of the Mumbaikers include Varan, Aamati, Vari Tandoolachi Khicdi, Potato vara and many more. Mumbai is replete with several fast food centers and many road side dhapas catering to the needs of the Mumbai people. Two Jewish communities, the Baghdadi Jews and the Bene-Israel have been associated with the city in the past- and have given the city many of its important landmarks. The tour takes you to one of the oldest synagogues in Mumbai.The population of Mumbai is around 18 millions and has a density of around 45,662 persons per square kilometer. There are 811 females to every 1,000 males. The smaller ratio of female-male population is owing to the fact that many working males in the city leave their families in rural areas where they hail from. The total literacy rate is 77%, which is higher than the national average. Male literacy rate is 82% and female literacy rate is71.6% literate. Hindus constitute 68% of the population, Muslim 17%, Christian 4% and Buddhist 4% and rest of the population comprise Parsis, Jains, Sikhs and Jews. Mumbai is also home to Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists – come on this tour and take the first step towards understanding the rich mix of people that make up India. Mumbai houses various ethnic groups among which Maharastrians form the majority.More than 50% of Mumbai’s population is of non-Maharashtrian identity. There are many ethnic groups such as Gujaratis ( in Ghatkopar, Vile Parle, Juhu, Khar, Mulund, Borivali, Kandivali and many in South Bombay), South Indians (in Chembur and Marol), Parsis & Sindhis in South Mumbai, and large number of people from U.P. and Bihar scattered all over the city. Approximately half of Mumbai’s population lives in slums. People from far off places come here to earn their living and make money. The city is famous for its tinsel town and is considered a dream city for the budding actors. The Ganesh Chaturthi, Diwali, and Holi are the main festivals of the Mumbai (Bombay) people. These festivals are celebrated in grandeur and unite all the citizens of Mumbai irrespective of caste and creed.
Marathi is recognized as the official language of the Mumbai city of India.The Parsi or the Zoroastrianism community, who became a part of Mumbai from the 16th century speak in fluent Gujarati language. Almost 70% of the Parsis who inhabit in Mumbai city use Gujarati as a mode of communication. Since the city is located in Maharashtra state of India, Majority of people here are Maharastrians using Marathi Language to interact with people in Market and street side location for daily purchasing and shopping needs, But when in comes to shopping malls, Most of them prefers English as a priority language, Again which depends on where actually your are.It is the most widely spoken language in the city. Apart from Marathi, there are many other languages that are spoken and understood in Bombay.Marathi is the most widely spoken language of Mumbai and the mother tongue of the local inhabitants of the city. A part of the Indo-Aryan languages, Marathi is the modified form of the Maharashtri language which is one form of Prakrit. Mumbaiya or Bambaiya Hindi is the slang language of Mumbaikars. This colloquial speech is a blend of Marathi, Hindi and English. Mumbaiya Hindi is extensively used on the streets of this Island city. The literacy rate in the city is above 86%, subsequently people have flair of education and culture. Since people around India comes to Mumbai for business and job, we find lots of them interacting mutually in mother tongue. Especially while traveling in local trains one can find people speaking languages like Gujarati, Malayalam, Tamil, Bihari etc. Hindi, English and Marathi are counted amongst the major languages in Mumbai, spoken by the common masses.But when you are at some public places like railway ticket window, Inside bus or Auto/taxi in Mumbai, The preferred language is Hindi OR Marathi, Gujarati and not English. Hindi, being the national language, forms the dialect of 30% of the people. English, nevertheless, enjoys an associate status and is used for national, political as well as commercial communication.Maharashtri was commonly spoken by the indigenous inhabitants of Maharashtra during the ancient times. The Marathi language rose to prominence during the sovereignty of the Yadava rulers. At present about 80% of the Mumbaikars speak Marathi which has been heavily influenced by Sanskrit, Kannad and Telugu. English is largely spoken by the people.Simple, use English because most of the people around known English well, Even people who studied in vernacular medium school has English as one of the subjects, So at least they know the Basics of this Language. Be polite, Speak simple English and use the actions and you are all done. People here are very cooperative so nothing to worry. Infact, it is the major language of the professional and managerial personnel in the city.
The city of Bombay originally consisted of seven islands, namely Colaba, Mazagaon, Old Woman’s Island, Wadala, Mahim, Parel, and Matunga-Sion.In 1534 the Portuguese, who already possessed many important trading centers on the western coast, such as Panjim, Daman, and Diu, took Bombay by force of arms from the Mohammedans. This group of islands, which have since been joined together by a series of reclamations, formed part of the kingdom of Ashoka, the famous Emperor of India. After repeated attacks, the Sultan of Gujarat handed over the islands to the Portuguese in 1534.The original inhabitants of Mumbai Bombay were the Kolis.These islands were a part of Gujarat. When the Muslim ruler Sultan Muhamed Begada captured the islands, Bombay was till then inhabited by the Hindus. Vasco da Gama a Portuguese was the first man to discover the sea route to Bombay.After his death, these islands passed into the hands of various Hindu rulers until 1343. In that year, the Mohammedans of Gujerat took possession and the Kings of that province of India ruled for the next two centuries. In the ancient period (273-232BC) Bombay or today’s Mumbai was part of the Maurya empire. Ptolemy referred to Mumbai as Heptanesia or the land of seven islands in his writings. In 1348 these Hindu islands came under the control of Muslim Sultans of Gujarat. And the king of Portugal took over Bombay on 23 Dec, 1534. This led to the establishment of numerous churches which were constructed in areas where the majority of people were Roman Catholics. There used to be two areas in Bombay called “Portuguese Church”. However, only one church with Portuguese-style facade still remains; it is the St. Andrew’s church at Bandra. The Portuguese also fortified their possession by building forts at Sion, Mahim, Bandra, and Bassien which, although in disrepair, can still be seen. They named their new possession as “Bom Baia” which in Portuguese means “Good Bay”. These fisher folk worshipped the Goddess Mumbadevi from whom Mumbai derives its name. The Portuguese could not find any use for them and in1661 the island of Bombay was given to Charles 11 of England as part of the dowry when he got married to Catherine of Braganza., sister of the Portuguese king Over the centuries, the seven islands, which collectively form Mumbai, were predominantly under Hindu dynasties.The British Bombay has become Mumbai in 1995.The name is derived from Mmnba Aai- the deity worshipped by Koli fishermen. According to some other opinion, Portuguese term Buon Bahia meaning Good Ocean in European pronunciation became Bombay in 17th century. However reference of Boa Vida (good standard of living) is available in the writing of Jao De Castro in 1538. The name of the island Bombay was first mentioned by Johu Viau in 1626. The British awarded the title of London of the East to the then beautiful Bombay . The only vestige (mark) of their dominion over these islands that remains today is the mosque at Mahim. Bombay was originally a cluster of seven Koli islands inhabited by fishermen.
Timeline Data Of Mumbai:
- 1534 – Bombay islands were captured by the Portuguese.
- 1661 – The islands were gifted in the dowry to Charles II of England.
- 1668 – Charles II gave the islands to the East Indian Company on lease.
- 1708 – Bombay became the H.Q. of the East India Company.
- 1862 – The islands were merged to shape one stretch.
- 1869 – Suez Canal was opened and Bombay developed as an international port.
- 1947 – Bombay was declared the capital of Bombay state.
- 1960 – Bombay was made the capital of Maharashtra.
- 1995 – The name was changed to Mumbai after the goddess ‘Mumbadevi’.
Following the first war of Independence in 1857, the Company was accused of mismanagement, and Bombay reverted to the British crown.s In 1782 William Hornby, then Governor of Bombay Presidency, initiated the project of connecting the isles.During this time period, the first land-use laws were set up in Bombay , segregating the British part of the islands from the black town. In 1757, Kamathis, construction workers from Andhra Pradesh arrived here and set up base. The region was the low-lying area near present day Mahalaxmi. The region became known as Kamathipura, now notorious for its red-light area. In 1794 the Presidency Post Office was established. The Hornby Vellard was the first of the engineering projects, started in 1784, despite opposition from the directors of the East India Company. The cost of the vellard was estimated at Rs. 100,000. The project gained momentum in 1817, and by 1845 the seven southern islands had been connected to form Old Bombay, with an area of 435 km². With the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, exports, specially cotton, from Bombay became a major part of the colonial economy. Independence of India brought its division into two nations India and Pakistan. As the result of this partition more than 1,000,000 Sindhi refugees migrated from Pakistan. They were relocated in the military camps within the range of five kilometers from Kalyan. Later this area was developed into a township and named as Ulhasnagar in 1949.The Period of Several Rulers: Mauryan Empire Ashoka captured the area from Kolis community and established his dominance during 350 B.C.The first Indian National Congress was held in Bombay in 1885 and it was also where the Quit India Movement was launched in 1942. Post independence, Bombay became the capital of what was then called the Bombay Presidency, but this region was later divided into Maharashtra and Gujarat in 1960. This area of was developed as the merging point of two religions namely Hinduism and Buddhism. Various manuscripts and works of fine arts related to Buddhism can be witnessed in the Kanheri and Mahakali Caves of that century. With the merging of the sub urban areas and Bombay city the district of Greater Bombay came into existence on April 1950.The Great Indian Peninsular Railway facilitated travel within India. This network of commerce and communication led to an accumulation of wealth. This was channelled into building an Imperial Bombay by a succession of Governors. Many of Bombay’s famous landmarks, the Flora Fountain and the Victoria Terminus, date from this time. The water works, including the Hanging Gardens and the lakes were also built at this time. The Bombay Municipal Corporation was founded in 1872. However, this facade of a progressive and well-governed city was belied by the plague epidemics of the 1890s. This dichotomy between the city’s symbols of power and prosperity and the living conditions of the people who make it so continues even today. The construction of Imperial Bombay continued well into the 20th century. Landmarks from this period are the Gateway of India, the General Post Office, the Town Hall (now the Asiatic Library) and the Prince of Wales Museum. Bombay expanded northwards into the first suburbs, before spreading its nightmare tentacles into the the northern suburbs. The nearly 2000 acres reclaimed by the Port Trust depressed the property market for a while, but the Backbay reclamation scandal of the ’20s was a testament to the greed for land. Colaba, Fort, Bycula, Parel, Worli, Matunga and Mahim-these seven islands constitute greater Bombay having an area of 5 sq km. However today they have all merged and taken the shape of peninsula. In the past it was the land of Koli fishermen. The British King took over the control of all 7 islands in 1665. In 1668 the British gave leasehold right of Bombay to East India Company for an annual revenue of £ 10 (gold) starling. Thus began the growth of Bombay by the East India Company. At Thane creek a bridge was constructed, connecting the mainland with the islands. The freedom movement reached a high pitch of activity against this background of developing Indian wealth. Gandhi returned from South Africa and reached Bombay on January 12, 1915. Following many campaigns in the succeeding years, the end of the British imperial rule in India was clearly presaged by the Quit India declaration by the Indian National Congress on August 8, 1942, in Gowalia Tank Maidan, near Kemp’s Corner. India became a free country on August 15, 1947. In the meanwhile, Greater Bombay had come into existence through an Act of the British parliament in 1945.The American civil war gave a further boost to the cotton and textile industry, which emerged as the main manufacturing activity. With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 Bombay prospered as an International port, and reinforced its position as a major commercial and industrial center in India.
Picture Gallery of Mumbai Old Photo:
Similar to the coastal states of India, Marathi food also contains lots of fish and coconuts.Indian cooking is distinguished by the use of a larger variety of vegetables than many other well-known cuisines. Within these recognisable similarities, there is an enormous variety of local styles. Vegetables are an integral part of the diet here, just like in all other parts of India. Grated coconut is used in many dishes, but coconut oil is not used as a cooking medium most often.in the north and the west, Kashmiri and Mughlai cuisines show strong central Asian influences. Through the medium of Mughlai food, this influence has propagated into many regional kitchens. To the east, the Bengali and Assamese styles shade off into the cuisines of East Asia. Lots of Peanuts and cashew nuts are used in vegetables and Peanut oil is the main cooking medium of Maharashtra. Mumbai is a gastronome’s delight. The city has all the delicacies that the exotic India has to offer. However you can relish all the delicacies that a coastal region offers, along with the native fast food delicacies such as Bhelpuri, Pav Bhaji and Pani Puri. Bombay has a contagious influence of rich and mildly spicy styles of cooking from the peripheral states of Maharashtra and Gujarat region along with those of Parsis’s delicacies. Mumbai owns some of the best selected restaurants in India. These restaurants offer a wide variety of food. All coastal kitchens make strong use of fish and coconuts.One Never need to worry about food in Mumbai as once here one can enjoy variety of Cuisine in various corners of Mumbai, On the street and in the small restaurant and budget star hotels of Mumbai. The desert cuisines of Rajasthan and Gujarat use an immense variety of dals and achars (preserves) to substitute for the relative lack of fresh vegetables. Bhelpuri is a typical Bombay delicacy – a sweet and spicy combo of puffed rice, onions, boiled potatoes, puri, coriander, mint, chillies and chutney. Pav Bhaji is an assortment of cooked and soiced vegetables such as peas, peppers, tomatoes, potatoes and onion along with a bread bun. Pani Puri is another mouthwatering delicacy that is lightweight puffed semolina or flour cakes, eaten with a filling of boiled pulses, spices, tamarind chutney and spicy water.The use of tamarind to impart sourness distinguishes Tamil food. The Andhra kitchen is accused, sometimes unfairly, of using excessive amounts of chilies. Gujarati thalis, Muslim kababs, Mangalorean seafood, Parsi dhansaak, North Indian tandooris and Goan vindaloo are just some of the names of the dishes available.
Marathi Thali Or Marathi Food Of Mumbai:
The traditional food of Mumbai is just awesome. Mumbai’s dishes like Bombil Batata Bhaji, Kamag Kakri, Solachi Kadhi etc, are famous all over India.A vegetarian Marathi platter or thali consists of recipes such as curries, rice, sweets etc. The thali system in Mumbai is very common and most preferred meal, as it contains a complete diet of a person. Dhan Sak is a well Known Parsi delicacy – Dhan means wealth and this dish is luxuriously prepared with a mixture of mutton, tripe, various kinds of lentils enriched by many vegetable. There is one Min Vela Curry – a mixed fish curry made of pomfret, mullet and mackerel with a dash of spices, tamarind and coconut. As a regional specialty Bombay Duck comes high on the list of a foodie’s menu. It is strong smelling small fish, which is served in various ways, dried in the Sun the bummelo is powdered and sprinkled over a curry. Fresh bombil is wrapped in chili powder, saffron, and wheat flour and deep-fried till it is crunchy on the exterior and mushy interior. Here, people enjoy their own variety of fast-food, which ranges from Bhel Puri to Pav Bhaji and Vada Pav to Pani Puri. Most of these snacks are really hot and spicy, which would certainly tickle your taste-buds. Vada Pav, the hamburger of Mumbai, is a deep fried cutlet made of potatoes inside round-shaped bread.As Mumbai is located in Maharashtra, one can enjoy varieties of Marathi Food recipes like Batata Bhaji (Made of Potato, fried in oil), Kolhapuri, famous low budget food like dal rice, Misal pav, Usal pav etc which are few Veg Cuisine famous in Mumbai, For Non-Veg lovers few of the famous places are Bade Miya and Mohd ali road during Muslim festivals for best of Chicken items fried on the streets full of Open hotels to eat which are few Non vegetarian Food to eat in Mumbai. It is inclusive of – 4 chapatis, pulses, vegetable, curd, rice, salad and sweet-dish optional. Among the other well known dishes of Mumbai are Bombil Batata Bhaji, Kamag Kakri, Solachi Kadhi, etc.
Fast Food Of Mumbai:
Pav Bhaji and Pani Puri are the most loved snacks amongst most of the Indians.The people of Maharashtra enjoy eating their own fast food like Pav bhaji and Bhelpuri instead of hamburgers and hot dogs. Most of the Mumbai snacks are extremely hot and spicy. Pav Bhaji is a mix of a variety of vegetables and spices and Bhelpuri is a chat eaten widely by the people in Mumbai. Where Pani Puri is puffed puris filled with sprouts and potatoes, Pav Bhaji is made of vegetables and is eaten with round-shaped bread.Other snacks available are Vada Pav and Pani Puri. Vada is made of boiled potatoes coated with Gram flour batter and deep fried in oil. Pav is a round shaped bread. Vada Pav is known as the hamburger of Mumbai. Pani Puri is a light snacks made of puffed puris, sprouts and spices. There is a variety of snacks available in this city and people just love them. Some of the famous places in Mumbai to taste the legendary fast food is khau Galii, a small laneway off Zaveri Bazaar packed with food stalls, serving delicious food items. These mouthwatering dishes are also available on the beach stalls of Chowpatty and Juhu. Chidva or flattened rice cooked with spices and vegetables is another great recipe from the capital of Maharashtra. Shrikhand, Shira, Chikki and Puran Poli are its famous desserts that are appreciated round the world.
About Hot and Spicy Food and Chats Of Mumbai:
This are famous street cuisine of Mumbai one can find all around like Bandra, Churchgate, Andheri, Borivali and other places famous for shopping.Another well known dishes of Mumbai include Bombli Batata Bhaji, Kamag Kakri, Solachi Kadhi, Those with special fascination with non-vegetarian food may well make rounds to Mohammad Ali Road, which comes alive with the onset of fading Sun and the place is electric with food buffs. Food simply means scrumptious dishes in Mumbai. The Chaupati Beach always reminds one of the lip-smacking ‘Bhel Puri’, a fast-food made of puffed rice, with lots of chillies, sauces and chopped onions. A typical Bombay platter consists of curries, rice, curd, chapattis, vegetable, salad, sweets etc. In fact, platter system is quite prevalent in the city and makes the most-preferred meal, seeing that it contains the all-inclusive diet of an individual. Starting with Vada Pav, belive me its one of the famous food made up of Potato’s. Mumbai also celebrates Vada Pav Day during one day somewhere in August Or September.Here you can savor delicacies like baida (egg) paratha, boti kebabs, biryani. Next is Samosa’s (Punjabi and Chinese Samosas), Pani Puri which is girls favorite made up of Round Puri which is filled with Tasty Ragda and Spicy Water. Then there is Ragda Patis, Pav Bhaji, Sev Puri, Bhel Puri, Chana, Masala Puri etc which can also easily seen on Juhu Chowpatty.
Lunch In Mumbai:
When it comes to Lunch plate, its full of around 10 items which contains 2 to 3 Bhaji, Chapati’s or Roti’s as preferred a dal, Curry, Rice, Pickle (Achar), Dahi (Curd), Onion and a sweet plate which generally has Sheera. Then comes common Pulav rice or Biryani rice which is fast and ready to eat and a Tasty Mumbai Cuisine. This can be found in Both South Indian Restaurants and Other Marathi Hotels. Apart from Maharashtrian vegetarian recipes, many other dishes are also available here like soups, chidva etc. Shrikhand is a sweet dish that is eaten with puris. Shira and Puran Poli are other desserts prepared specially on puja occasions. Besides these, Chikki is a famous sweet preparation of Mumbai, which is also gaining popularity outside the state.One also has an option of asking for Puris in replacement of Chapatis. Then comes common Pulav rice or Biryani rice which is fast and ready to eat and a Tasty Mumbai Cuisine. This can be found in Both South Indian Restaurants and Other Marathi Hotels.
Dinner In Mumbai:
Like most of the coastal states of India, Marathi food uses lots of fish and coconuts. Most Commonly used food in Lunch is what is same for Dinner, so nothing Special.As in all other parts of India, there is an enormous variety of vegetables in the regular diet. Grated coconuts spice many kinds of dishes, but coconut oil is not very widely used as a cooking medium. Peanuts and cashewnuts are widely used in vegetables. Peanut oil is the main cooking medium.
Food and Cuisine in Star Hotels Of Mumbai:
Mumbai is a food buff’s delight. Here the variety of food available is more than anywhere else in India. You get a good variety of food here ranging from roadside snacks to fast-food and from ethnic food to five-star cuisine.Apart of the Mumbai style Cuisine, when in Star hotels one can find all types of Food like Italian, Chinese, Mexican and other which is your favorite.
Drink In Mumbai:
In Mumbai there are many cafe shops and tea stalls are available offering different varieties of coffee and tea. Delicious fruit juices are available at juice stalls. They come in exotic varieties such as mango, custard apple and lychee. A good range of foreign beer is also available in Mumbai.and there are also meny bars in mumbai for drink beer and whisky and enjoyment in mumbai.
Marathi Recipe List:
- Bombil Batata bhaji (Bombay Duck)
- Khamag Kakri
- Kolhapuri Mutton
- Vada Pav
- Sabudanyachi Khichadi
- Solachi Kadhi
- Vatanyachi Usal